Chanakya Niti in Hindi Chanakya was an Indian teacher, philosopher and royal advisor. Originally a professor of economics and political science at the ancient. App includes thoughts of The Great Chanakya. It is in Hindi and English both language. Chankya Niti Contains the quotes about: Life Politics Black Money. चाणक्य नीति ईबुक हिंदी में मुफ्त डाउनलोड करें | Download Chanakya Neeti PDF In Hindi Free!!.
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Shamasastry writes "Still I shall feel highly rewarded for my labors, if it proves a stepping-stone for others to arrive at a correct interpretation. For want of necessary diacritical marks, the translation of the Sanskrit words could not be made as thorough as it ought to be.
Although possibilities lie that in future the new translations by erudite scholars might point out some new interpretations. Most likely, in spite of a few differences in the interpretations of those erudite scholars, there does not arise the possibility of adverse affects on the basic contents of the book. The Authenticity of Kautilya or Chanakya As the authenticity of the Arthasastra has been questioned by scholars of standing like Professors Keith and Winternitz, we propose to examine some of the arguments advanced by them in support of their theory with a view to demonstrate their inconclusiveness.
Winternitz refers to the verse in which Kautilya says that he had taken the kingdom from the Nandas and remarks that the real minister in a book written by the order of or intended for his king would not have written such words, for, it could not have been very pleasing to the king. The verse under reference is a piece of internal evidence which goes to confirm the traditional story in the Puranas of Kautilya's part in the revolution which resulted in the overthrow of the ruling Nanda dynasty of Magadha and the establishment of the Mauryan dynasty.
This verse is, therefore, valuable as it demonstrates beyond all doubt that the writer of the extant work of the Arthasastra is the same Kautilya who had contributed not a little to the overthrowing of the old dynasty and to the founding of the new dynasty.
Without this verse which is indeed significant the work will not appeal to us as the accredited writing of the first Mauryan Chancellor. The objection that it is a thing not likely to have been pleasing to the king is no argument. Kautilya will not stand to lose by writing thus. There is a baseless version that Chandragupta was not a Kshatriya but of a mixed caste.
And if it were a fact that Kautilya took up arms openly against the reigning dynasty and helped the succeeding dynasty in securing the throne there is no reason for the king to feel displeased at such a statement. Winternitz translates the verse as follows:" This text-book has been composed by him, who quickly and impatiently raised the Arthasastra from former imperfect text-books passed his sword and took the earth that had passed to the Nandas out of their hands.
Smith the Nanda king who was deposed and slain by Chandragupta was of low caste and a heretic hostile to the Brahmanas and the Kshatriyas.
He further remarks that "the nine Nandas were considered to be unholy persons unworthy of inclusion in orthodox Hindu annals". Then it is clear that during the period of the Nandas that both the sastras of the Brahmanical science and the. Shastra or the Kshatriya science, were in a neglected and decadent condition. This receives corroboration from the Asokan Edicts where Asoka expresses in certain places the neglect of certain institutions and the practice of some aspects of dharma by his predecessors.
The elevation to the throne of an orthodox King like Chandragupta led automatically to the elevation of both the shastra and the Sastra. Kautilya who could have played no mean part in bringing about this happy consummation, has expressed in this verse his contempt for the Nandas and his relief at the succession of Chandragupta.
As I have said elsewhere he compliments the king by complimenting himself. The verse is then a visible demonstration, by Kautilya, of his satisfaction at the new state of affairs of the kingdom with Chandragupta at its head.
And rightly Professor Jacobi reads into these lines "the proud self -consciousness of a great statesman of the Indian Bismarck"! Why he felt called upon to undertake this arduous task can be easily explained.
Previous to the epoch of the Nandas and the 1lauryas we have not definitely alighted upon any historical ground. If we are going to believe tradition once again, there were a number of short-lived dynasties coming and going, commencing with Parikshit. In these centuries apparently a number of ArthaHtstra teachers and also schools sprang up in the land, and each teacher or follower of a certain school was pushing forward his or its own theory of the state and administration.
Kautilya mentions twelve writers on polity who were all his predecessors. He could not afford to neglect them. He often refers to their views either to refute, or to accept them. Kautilya's mission was, it would appear, to critically examine the floating theories on polity as befits the statesman at the helm of affairs of a great empire, and strike at some definite proposals conducive to the good government of the state, and yet in accordance with the traditions of the land.
The Narendra who was no other than Chandragupta Maurya must have been pleased with the work, for something definite was presented to him to follow, and by following which he could have the supreme satisfaction of being able to administer the land on right lines.
From the contents of the work it is unthinkable that the hand of the statesman is not present in it. Winternitz has taken pains to select one or two passages wherein Kautilya has loosely expressed his views, and on the strength of such slender basis, he dismisses the author as a mere Pandit. No one can deny for a moment that there are some places where Kautilya is not definite or assertive. It is probable that in these particulars he was not quite convinced of the prevailing opinions; still expediency might have dictated such a policy under certain circumstances.
In such places he could have subordinated his opinion to that of the others. Apart from this construction any other cannot be placed on the so-called weak points in the treatise. But at the same time it is pertinent to remark that there is much truth in the statement that it is the work of a Pandit.
And who is a Pandit? He who is deeply versed in a science or sciences is a Pandit. If Kautilya had not established his reputation as a great author on administrative science, viz. The king would not have ordered a layman to write for him a manual on statecraft.
Further only the highly learned Pandits occupied superior positions in the government as ministers, councillors, judges, etc. If Kautilya had not been a Pandit he would have been unworthy to hold the Chancellorship of a new government which indeed involved serious responsibilities.
The fact was that in ancient times the high class Pandits the sishytas and Lishytas of the Dharmasastra literature carried on the civil administration of the realm while the military administration was exercised by the Kshtriya monarch.
This does not mean that there was a cut and dried military or civil department which only this class or that class could monopolise.
The departments were interdependent and by co-operation everything went on smoothly. Examples of Pandits who had been the soul of administration from both traditional and historical accounts are not wanting. There is the tradition of Vasishtha, the Purohita of king Dasaratha.
Here the king did not take the initiative in any affair without previous consultation with and advice of his Guru and friend Vasishtha. In medieval times we know of Vidyaranya, the minister of the Vijayanagar emperor, Bukka.
He was also known as Madhavacharya, the worthy brother of the worthy Sayana, the celebrated commentator of the Vedas. Students use infringement checker to check plagiarism in their essays, Duplicate finder in research papers, and reports to assure that their writing is free of plagiarism. Teachers use a duplication remover or duplicate cleaner app for work purpose.
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