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He then obtained an assignment to coach an advocate's son in Benares at a monthly salary of five rupees. After racking up several debts, in , he once went to a book shop to sell one of his collected books.
Three months later, he was transferred to the District School in Pratapgarh , where he stayed in an administrator's bungalow and tutored his son. His first short novel was Asrar e Ma'abid "Secrets of God's Abode", Devasthan Rahasya in Hindi , which explores corruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women. The novel was published in a series in the Benares-based Urdu weekly Awaz-e-Khalk from 8 October to February He stayed in Kanpur for around four years, from May to June There he met Munshi Daya Narain Nigam, the editor of the Urdu magazine Zamana, in which he later published several articles and stories.
He did not find the weather of the atmosphere conducive for writing. Plus, he faced domestic trouble due to quarrels between his wife and his step-mother. Premchand angrily scolded his wife, after she unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide by hanging. Dismayed, she went to her father's house, and Premchand displayed no interest in bringing her back.
He criticised Gokhale's methods for achieving political freedom, and instead recommended adoption of more extremist measures adopted by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It explores the issue of widow remarriage in the contemporary conservative society: the protagonist Amrit Rai overcomes social opposition to marry the young widow Poorna, giving up his rich and beautiful fiance Prema.
According to Prakash Chandra Gupta, "while containing seeds of his future greatness in many ways, the novel is still youthful and lacks the discipline which full maturity brings". This page work, which satirises women's fondness for jewellery, is now lost. The collection, which was later banned, contained four stories which sought to inspire the Indians in their struggle for political freedom.
The British collector of the Hamirpur District ordered a raid on Premchand's house, where around five hundred copies of Soz-e-Watan were burnt. Dhanpat Rai stopped using the name "Nawab Rai" and became Premchand. In , Munshi Premchand started writing in Hindi Hindi and Urdu are considered different registers of a single language Hindustani , with Hindi drawing much of its vocabulary from Sanskrit and Urdu being more influenced by Persian.
By this time, he was already reputed as a fiction writer in Urdu. Gorakhpur[ edit ] A plaque commemorating Munshi Premchand at the hut where he resided in Gorakhpur from to In August , Premchand was transferred to Gorakhpur on a promotion.
By , Premchand had published four novels, of about a hundred pages each. In , Premchand's first major novel Seva Sadan was published in Hindi. It was well received by the critics, and helped Premchand gain wider recognition.
In , Premchand obtained a BA degree from Allahabad. On 8 February , he attended a meeting in Gorakhpur, where Mahatma Gandhi asked people to resign from government jobs as part of the non-cooperation movement. Premchand, although physically unwell and with two kids and a pregnant wife to support, thought about it for 5 days and decided, with the consent of his wife, to resign from his government job.
Back to Benares[ edit ] After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March , and decided to focus on his literary career.
Till his death in , he faced severe financial difficulties and chronic ill health. Schulz mentions that in Rangabhumi, Premchand comes across as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws" and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchand's writing style.
In , Premchand's novel Gaban "Embezzlement" , focusing on the middle class' greed, was published. In March , Premchand launched a literary-political weekly magazine titled Hans, aimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilise against the British rule.
Premchand then took over and edited another magazine called Jagaran, which too ran at a loss. In , he published another novel titled Karmabhumi. He briefly served as the headmaster of the Kashi Vidyapeeth, a local school. After the school's closure, he became the editor of the Madhuri magazine in Lucknow.
This poignant story of a young boy's sacrifice and love makes everyone shed a tear or two. Thakur Ka Kuan Thakur Ka Kuan throws light on the degrading condition of Dalits in the old days when they were denied clean drinking water by people from upper caste.
When a Dalit woman Gangi's ailing husband complains of an unbearable odour in drinking water, she asks him to wait until she fetches clean water from somewhere.
Thakur Ka Kuan will make you dread the caste-based discrimination in our country. Boodhi Kaaki Like most of his stories, this one highlights the struggles of a poor and helpless soul. This time, his central character is an old and blind woman whose husband and sons have died.
With no one to look after her in this age, her nephew promises to keep her, but not before transferring all her property to his name. And now, the nephew Buddhiram and his wife Rupa, don't even give her food to eat. Once during a function at their home, everyone enjoys eating sweets and pooris, ignoring the old Kaaki who's starving of hunger.
Unable to control herself any longer, the poor and frail woman lands in the middle of guests. This angers the heartless couple even more.
The climax of this story, when Rupa finds the Kaaki quietly eating the leftovers, will melt even the toughest of hearts. With this story, Munshi Premchand gives out a message that old age is just a re-arrival of childhood. Namak Ka Daroga Another soul-stirring gem from his stories, Namak Ka Daroga leaves a sweet taste in your mouth and tears in your eyes. Vanshidhar is newly appointed as the Daroga in the government's salt department.
Back in the day, salt was a precious commodity and its illegal trade was rampant. Despite his old father's advice, encouraging him to make some extra money by accepting bribe, Vanshidhar is honest and just in his conduct. As it happens, Vanshidhar arrests a wealthy businessman, Pandit Alopideen for illegally trading of salt. No amount of money that Pt.
Alopideen offered could get Vanshidhar to compromise on his morals. Eventually, the influential businessman is released of all the charges, leaving Vanshidhar disappointed. But the twist in the story comes when he turns up at Vanshidhar's house praising his honesty.
Bade Bhai Sahab Bade Bhai Sahab is a light-hearted story of two brothers, one of whom is 5 years elder to the other. The elder brother's rant about the importance of education and how ridiculous he finds it at the same time evokes much laughter.
He often lectures his younger brother, who isn't fond of studying and spends most of his time loitering around and playing. Despite that, unfortunately, every year, the younger one passes with flying colours while the elder brother fails. Nonetheless, the story ends with a solid lesson that it's naive to disregard elders on the basis of their educational qualifications.
Nasha Nasha is also set in the days of pre-independence before Zamindari was abolished by the government. Bir, the son of a poor clerk, was good friends with Ishwari who was the son of a rich landlord. They often got into debates and Bir staunchly criticised the Zamindari system with an argument that the landlords exploit the poor and that this whole system should be ended.
Ishwari, on the other hand, believed that all the humans were not equals and that Zamindars were born to rule people. Despite this difference of opinion, the two were, nonetheless, good friends.
Once, when Bir was unable to go to his hometown because he didn't have enough money, Ishwari takes him to his home. Upon reaching, he introduces Bir as one of the wealthy zamindars. Bir, enjoying the attention and respect that he gets from all of Ishwari's servants, begins to live the lie, contradicting his own beliefs against the aristocracy.