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Sadhana 34 1 —69 Google Scholar Kle10a. Klein G A formally verified OS kernel. Now what? Springer, Berlin, pp 1—7 Google Scholar Kle10b. Klein G From a verified kernel towards verified systems.
Springer, Berlin, pp 21—33 Google Scholar Kle10c. Klein G The L4. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol Springer, Berlin, pp — Google Scholar Lab Newnes Google Scholar Lin Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol Paulson L Isabelle. Ramananandro T Mondex, an electronic purse: Specification and refinement checks with the Alloy model-finding method. The CPU interoperates with other processing units, exchanging data through dedicated channels for example, shared memory buffers or peripheral units.
Lauterbach supports these architectures with different TRACE32 instances, each one connected to a single core, in core view configuration where debug focus is on single processor.
However, as the cores do not work independently but perform the application task together and in parallel, it is possible to start and stop all the cores simultaneously. This is the only way to test the interaction between the cores and to monitor and control the entire application. Moreover, as each core run a separate part of the application, the majority of the symbol and debug information is assigned exclusively to the corresponding core.
In the following paragraphs, the basic TRACE32 multicore configuration for a single device will be introduced. In order to use a generic configuration file for each TRACE32 instance, there is the possibility to use just one generic template file for all cores. The particular settings are passed as parameter. This is shown in the reference script:.
See the reference script:.
In this way, all CPU-specific configuration commands can be performed in the same way for each TRACE32 application, or distinguishing between different configurations. For example:. A summary of SYnch configuration is provided with command TargetSystem, which also allows to easily and rapidly modify the SYnch mode options.
Moreover the TargetSystem command provides a general overview of the whole multicore configuration and of the current state.
There is a time delay between reaction of different cores. The reaction time of the slave core depends on the technical realisation of the synchronization. If no specific configuration is performed, the synchronization is done by software eg: On the other side, if the on-chip Cross Trigger Interface is configured, the synchronization takes place directly on the processor.
This is a faster solution and the time delay between reaction of different cores becomes around ns.
The CTI interface for chip Zynq is configured with the following commands. The symbolic information is useful for HLL debugging, or setting breakpoints, stepping through the code, viewing variables, and many other aspects of debugging. The compiler must be configured in order to generate debug symbols. The vmlinux file for the running kernel must be available, in order to load the kernel debug symbols.
No instrumentation is needed in the kernel source code for debugging with Lauterbach, but it's important that the vmlinux file is generated from the same kernel build as the zImage or uImage running on the system.
The Data. LOAD command is used to load the kernel symbols, and the sYmbol. SourcePATH command can be used, if necessary, to define additional search directories for the source files. Specific options must be configured to avoid automatic Break of TRACE32 debugger, in case any of the following events happens due to normal Linux operations.
For more details, please refer to:.
Debug is significantly simplified, as the user can immediately access all the components of the OS and the application.
The Linux kernel awareness is configured with the commands:. The Linux menu file linux. The kernel awareness supports Linux MMU format and is able to handle virtual memory addressing.
List KernelPageTable , executed when the kernel is up and running.
COMMON , the virtual address range has been extended below the kernel start address, because kernel objects are loaded in this memory range. The Linux kernel can be compiled to allow linking of additional modules at runtime kernel objects. The Lauterbach debuggers also support kernel modules debugging, starting from the initialization function. User process debugging is also available, starting from the very beginning of the process. If the process loads shared objects, they are loaded in the process address space when the related instructions are executed for the first time demand paging.
The Lauterbach debuggers also support debug of threads for multithreaded processes. In this case, the same address space is shared between different threads and the symbolic information can be loaded only once per process. In general, the same techniques used for debugging kernel code, such as setting breakpoints, stepping through code, watching variables, and viewing memory contents, can be performed in the same way for processes and tasks.
The memory addressing is extended using the lower 16 bit of the process PID, allowing in this way to distinguish between equal virtual addresses for different processes.
The ETB stores program-flow trace information on-chip at high rates and at bit data width.
The data can be read out via JTAG, when the trace recording has ended. Configuration allows a full control of configuration, initialization and listing of trace information. In this way, an easy comparison is possible of program flow of each core at the same time.