Page 1. Copyright © Eatolls. All rights reserved terrourocopa.ml Eatolls Print Map of Male'. Beautifully illustrated Map of Male' with over addresses and more. First of its Download the map for personal use. male' map . Male Map offline - Male (Maldives) Map offline - is an application that allows you to view online and offline Male map in yourmobile phone. 2 types of maps are.
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The first ever Pocket Map of Male' City is a now available Until now there has not been any detailed map of the City (Male, Villimale', Download Pdf. A detailed, zoomable, Dhivehi map of Maldives with location search and various other features. map of Maldives. 71 77 00 MALE' ATOLL. Thulusdhoo ( Kaafu Atoll). Male International Airport. Male'. Rasdhoo. NORTH ARI ATOLL.
Segregation analysis and linkage mapping. Polymorphic markers were scored as present or absent on the mapping population. Both distorted and undistorted markers were used for map construction, except distorted ones that affected linkage group definition. According to the two-way pseudo-test cross-mapping strategy, markers were first separated into three data matrices: 1 with markers showing segregation only in the female parent OLV; 2 with markers segregating only in the male parent ARB; and 3 with markers segregating and Initially, the construction of separate parental maps was tested and computed using different combinations of criteria to define LGs with a logarithm of odds LOD threshold ranging from 3 to 6 and a maximum recombination fraction varying from 0.
The Kosambi mapping function was applied to convert recombination rates into map distances in centiMorgans. MapChart 2.
The third data matrix, containing all markers, was used to construct the integrated linkage map. The marker phase was deduced from the parental maps for most markers segregating ; whereas for markers segregating in the configuration and those with unknown phases, all possible phases, were tested and the best fitting one was chosen.
Average marker spacing was calculated by dividing the total length of each map by the number of intervals. Analysis of distribution markers. The distribution of markers throughout the linkage map was analyzed using the method of Remington et al. Observed and expected genome lengths and map coverage. Average marker spacing for each LG was calculated by dividing the total length of the LG by the number of intervals.
The expected genome length centiMorgans was estimated following Method 4 of Chakravarti et al. Observed genome coverage was assessed by dividing the observed genome length by the expected genome length. Results and Discussion Amplified fragment length polymorphism marker genotyping. Based on the number of polymorphic markers revealed on a subset of six individuals in the progeny and on both parents, 23 highly polymorphic primer pairs were chosen among all tested combinations Table 1.
Table 1. AFLP appeared particularly suitable for constructing our linkage map. The number of polymorphic loci distinguished by a given primer combination varied from nine to 44 with an average value of eight for both the female and male maps Table 1.
The high percentage of markers segregating was similar to those found for other intraspecific crosses in olive Charafi et al. The level of polymorphism detected by AFLP markers in olive is similar to other woody perennial species such as peach [Prunus persica L.
Batsch Dirlewanger et al. Olmstead et al. Simple sequence repeat and intersimple sequence repeat marker genotyping. Parental screening revealed 44 polymorphic SSR markers out of the 90 loci tested. In the entire full-sib progeny, 26 loci segregated , seven loci segregated of which four loci with a null allele , and 11 segregated Table 2. Despite the small number of SSR markers, their high degree of polymorphism and their transferability within or even across species guarantees their extensive applicability in olive genome mapping studies.
Table 2. Segregation distortion. For AFLPs, a chi-square test was performed to verify the null hypothesis of a or segregation ratio for marker alleles. Among the 44 SSR loci used, nine loci presented distorted segregation Table 2. Concerning the ISSR markers, no segregation distortion was noticed.
Segregation distortion is recurrent in outcrossing species Ky et al. Because marker distortion may have biological origins, markers displaying significant deviation from Mendelian segregation were not automatically excluded.
We choose to eliminate only distorted markers affecting linkage group definition. A similar proportion of distorted markers was reported by De La Rosa et al. Marker distortion was also noted in other perennial fruit species such as grapevine [1.
Generally, a lower level of segregation distortion is expected in pseudo-test cross populations compared with F2 or BC1 progenies Tavoletti et al. Linkage analysis. To select the best LOD and recombination fraction thresholds, we analyzed data varying LOD from 3 to 6 and recombination fraction from 0. In both parental maps, under the recombination fraction of 0. It did not depend on LOD value with a recombination fraction rec of 0. S1 online. Therefore, a minimum LOD score of 6 and a maximum recombination fraction of 0.
Distance between Maldives and other countries Distance between Maldives and Sri Lanka from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and India from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Seychelles from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Malaysia from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Thailand from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Japan from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Hong Kong from closest point: km Distance between Maldives and Germany from closest point: km Male' Maldives to Colombo Sri Lanka: km Male' Maldives to Trivendrum India: km Gan Maldives to Colombo Sri Lanka: km Gan Maldives to Trivendrum India: km Distance between Maldives and Minicoy of India from closest point: km Distance between Minicoy and mainland of India from closest point: km Distance between Minicoy and other Indian islands from closest point: km Where is Maldives?
Is it in India?
Surprisingly some people tend to think Maldives is a part of another country. This is and such people from around the world still exists but the answer for them is very simple.
The formal name "Republic of Maldives" is an independent sovereign country with its territorial waters and land defined, and recognized by international bodies such as United Nations, Commonwealth. Maldives is widely known throughout the world and have foreign relations with all major countries of the world.
Maldives is a country in Indian Ocean. The country is headed by a democratically elected president. Judiciary and parliament are independent bodies of the state.
Maldives is divided into 20 atolls which are run by local councils, atoll councils or city councils, under the Constitution of the Republic of Maldives.
Maldives is not a part of any country, not even attached to protection of any specific country. Like other independent countries the government headed by the President Of Maldives administers the country. The world map shows geographical separation of Maldives from other countries. Equator Maldives is one of the many countries located on the equator which divides North Pole and South Pole.
The country is stretched narrowly from north to south of the globe and equator crosses between Fuvahmulah and Gaafu Dhaalu Atoll in the southern parts of the nation. Out of over islands in the Maldives each has has unique characteristics in terms of geography and people's lifestyle. Fuvahmulah is one of those unique islands which has native fish and a bird which is not found in anywhere else in the Maldives.
But, nothing seems to be remarkably different just because of the equator, except that the people speaks a different dialect of local language which most of the other locals dont understand at all.
The dialects are similar, but also different to a significant degree. Geography Maldives is made up of coral islands dispersed over an area of square kilometers in India Ocean. The islands are naturally grouped into 26 atolls. Each island is surrounded by sea, means you will need a boat to visit the island. It is common to find many islands sharing same lagoon, in the same area there are individually isolated islands as well.
Most of the islands have its own house reef that protects the beach and some atolls have outer reef that protects the entire atoll. Read more on Maldives geography and geology. It is believed that Maldives is formed atop inactive super volcanoes, each atoll is such a volcano with islands formed on the rim.
That could be the reason the islands in each atoll is somewhat circular in shape. History of Maldives Maldives is small but old country, historical evidence shows the Maldives is more than years old. Through out history Maldives was independent with exception of few foreign invasion that did not last long. The country had a ruler; a king, queen, sultan or president for the past years and more.
In the ancient times people used stars to navigate. Lack of maps and GPS did not prevent people from traveling from island to island, atoll to atoll, and even to overseas. Month long sea journeys, especially to Saudi Arabia, were part of the sea-based life. Two backbone SSR markers belonging to linkage group 4 of the available Cichorium consensus map were found genetically associated to the ms1 gene at 5.
A GBS strategy was then used to produce a high-density SNP-based linkage map, containing genomic loci organized into 9 linkage groups and spanning a total length of 1, cM. The map position of these markers was further validated by sequence-specific PCR experiments using an additional set of 64 progeny plants, enabling to verify that four of them fully co-segregated with male-sterility. A mesosynteny analysis revealed that 10 genomic DNA sequences encompassing the 13 selected SNPs of chicory mapped in a peripheral region of chromosome 5 of lettuce Lactuca sativa L.
Since a MYBlike gene, encoding for a transcription factor involved in callose dissolution of tetrads and exine development of microspores, was found located in the same chromosomal region, this orthologous was chosen as candidate for male-sterility.
This polymorphism was subsequently validated through allele-specific PCR assays and found to fully co-segregate with male-sterility, using 64 progeny plants of the same mapping BC1 population. Overall, our molecular data could be practically exploited for genotyping plant materials and for marker-assisted breeding schemes in leaf chicory. Introduction Linkage maps based on molecular markers play a key role in the study of the genetics and genomics of crop plants.
Among the possible applications, the development of high-density linkage maps has simplified the discovery of Mendelian genes Kaur et al. The first genetic linkage map of chicory Cichorium intybus subsp. In addition, outcrossing is promoted by a number of traits, including: i a floral morpho-phenology i. Two main botanical varieties can be recognized within C. The first is var. The second is var. In root chicory, Gonthier et al.
These two loci were both mapped to narrow genomic regions belonging, respectively, to linkage groups 5 and 2 of the genetic map developed by Cadalen et al. Similarly, in leaf chicory, Barcaccia and Tiozzo Caenazzo , mapped molecular markers linked to the male-sterility gene ms1 within linkage group 4, according to the map by Cadalen et al. Recently, a chicory genetic linkage map spanning 1, cM was developed by Muys et al.
This map comprised markers i. The markers were then used to find potential orthologous based on sequence homology in mapped lettuce EST clones from the Compositae Genome Project Database Muys et al.
Mapping of the self-incompatibility and male-sterility mechanisms in chicory is important, not only to understand the genetic basis of the main reproductive barriers that act in flowering plants, but also because of the potential applications of these loci for breeding F1 hybrid varieties. In fact, although in the past chicory varieties were mainly synthetics produced by intercrossing a number of phenotypically superior plants, selected on the basis of morpho-phenological and commercial traits, recently private breeders and seed firms have developed methods for the development of F1 hybrids.
In the last century, male sterile mutants have allowed the exploitation of heterosis i. In general, male-sterility is defined as the failure of plants to develop anthers or to form functional pollen grains and it is more prevalent than female-sterility. In nature, male sterile plants have reproduction potentials because they can still set seeds, as female-fertility is unaffected by most of the mutations responsible for male-sterility.
Barcaccia and Tiozzo Caenazzo , have recently identified and characterized a spontaneous male sterile mutation in cultivated populations of leaf chicory, namely Radicchio C.
Cytological analyses revealed that microsporogenesis proceeds regularly up to the development of tetrads when the microspores arrest their developmental program showing a collapse of the exine. At the beginning of microgametogenesis, non-viable shrunken microspores were clearly visible within anthers. Moreover, genetic segregation data derived from replicated F2 and BC1 populations clearly supported a nuclear origin, monogenic control and recessive nature of the male-sterility trait in the leaf chicory mutants Barcaccia and Tiozzo Caenazzo, , In this work, taking advantage of the method of genotyping based on 27 mapped microsatellite marker loci scattered throughout the linkage groups of leaf chicory Ghedina et al.
After a preliminary genetic mapping of the ms1 locus using SSR and EST markers, a Genotyping-By-Sequencing GBS methodology was used to narrow down the chromosomal window around the ms1 gene, first of all developing well-saturated linkage groups for this species and then selecting molecular markers and candidate genes for male-sterility exploitable for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning programs. A backcross BC1 population segregating for the male-sterility trait and comprising individual plants was generated as follows.
A male-sterile mutant plant genotype msms , belonging to a cultivated population of radicchio was crossed with a male-fertile plant genotype MsMs selected from a local accession of wild chicory, in order to maximize genetic diversity and polymorphism levels.
An individual F1 male-fertile plant heterozygous at the male-sterility locus genotype Msms was selfed and one F2 male-sterile progeny genotype msms was then backcrossed as seed parent to a sister F1 male-fertile plant genotype Msms used as pollen donor Figure 1.
Uniformly sized, 4 week-old seedlings were transplanted in the field under polyethylene tunnels and under controlled pollination conditions.
More in details, cytological investigations were accomplished using both aceto-carmine and DAPI solutions. The aceto-carmine staining technique was used to measure discriminant phenotypic descriptors, such as shape, size and coloration of pollen grains, as reported by Janssen and Hermsen and implemented by Barcaccia et al.
Microscopy characterized a mutant phenotype by shapeless, small and shrunken microspores as compared to the wild-type ones Figure 1. It is worth mentioning that in mutant plants at the stage of dehiscent anthers, microspores were arrested in their development at the uninucleate stage, and collapsed before their release from the tetrads. Viable pollen grains were never detected in mature anthers, demonstrating full expression of the male-sterility trait Barcaccia and Tiozzo Caenazzo, , Schematic representation of the breeding populations developed for mapping the gene responsible for male-sterility in Cichorium intybus.
A male-sterile mutant plant genotype msms , belonging to a cultivated population of radicchio was crossed with a male-fertile plant genotype MsMs selected from a spontaneous accession of wild chicory.
An F1 male-fertile plant heterozygous at the male-sterility locus genotype Msms was selfed and an F2 male-sterile plant genotype msms of the segregating population was then backcrossed as seed parent to a sister F1 male-fertile plant genotype Msms used as pollen donor. At flowering, anthers were preliminary screened for the absence vs. This step was preliminarily applied in order to determine and validate upstream and downstream backbone DNA markers encompassing the ms1 locus.